Blue Ocean Strategy - Blue vs Red

Unveiling the Secrets of Blue Ocean Strategy for Business Growth


The Blue Ocean Strategy represents a seminal approach in the world of business strategy. It advocates for the creation of new, uncontested market spaces—termed 'blue oceans'—as opposed to battling competitors in overcrowded 'red oceans'. This strategy hinges on the belief that market boundaries and industry structure are not givens but can be shaped by the actions and beliefs of industry players. By focusing on innovation, differentiation, and creating value for customers, businesses can tap into new demand and make the competition irrelevant. The Blue Ocean Strategy encourages companies to break out of the traditional competitive paradigm and venture into new areas of growth and opportunity.

What is the Blue Ocean Strategy


The Blue Ocean Strategy is a marketing theory and the title of a book published in 2005 by W. Chan Kim and Renée Mauborgne, professors at INSEAD. This concept challenges companies to move beyond competing in overcrowded industries, referred to as “red oceans”, which are saturated with competition. Instead, it encourages the creation of “blue oceans” of uncontested market space ripe for innovation. In a blue ocean, competition is irrelevant because the game’s rules are waiting to be set. The blue ocean strategy argues it is about growing demand and breaking away from competition to open up a new market space, offering a leap in value for the company and its customers.

Contrast with Traditional Competitive Strategies (“Red Ocean”)


In stark contrast to the Blue Ocean Strategy, traditional competitive strategies focus primarily on battling competitors within an existing industry. These “Red Ocean” strategies are characterised by a zero-sum game, where one company’s gain is achieved at another’ value cost and trade off another’s loss. The competition in Red Oceans becomes a fight over a shrinking profit pool, leading to increased commoditisation and price wars that thin margins. In these overcrowded markets, products and services become increasingly similar, making it harder for consumers to distinguish one brand from another. Instead of striving for differentiation and innovation, companies caught in Red Oceans often focus on outperforming their rivals and capturing greater shares of existing demand. This leads to a bloody competition that turns the ocean red.

The Concept of Blue Ocean Strategy


Origin and development of the strategy

The Blue Ocean Strategy concept emerged from a study of 150 strategic moves spanning over a hundred years and thirty industries. Kim and Mauborgne analysed companies that succeeded in creating blue oceans and noticed that instead of out-competing rivals within the confines of an already existing market space or industry, these firms focused on developing new market spaces, making the competition irrelevant. The term “Blue Ocean” metaphorically describes the vast, deep, and influential areas of the market that are untapped and void of competition. This strategy’s development underscored the need for businesses to shift from a competition-focused approach to one that emphasizes value innovation as the driving force of growth.

Core principles: creating uncontested market space and making the competition irrelevant

The core principles of the Blue Ocean Strategy revolve around two primary objectives: creating uncontested market space and making the competition irrelevant. To achieve these, businesses must diverge from the traditional competitive landscape and innovate to create new demand. This process involves redefining market boundaries, identifying and solving untouched customer problems, and offering unique value propositions that set a business apart. Central to these principles is “value innovation”, where companies focus on increasing customer value while simultaneously reducing costs. By doing so, firms can unlock new demand and create a market space where they are the sole player — a blue ocean. This strategic approach encourages companies to think beyond existing industry conditions and constraints, aiming instead to redefine the terms of competition and tap into the potential of previously unexplored markets.

The Simultaneous Pursuit of Differentiation and Low Cost

Central to executing the Blue Ocean Strategy is the simultaneous pursuit of differentiation and low cost. This seemingly paradoxical approach is key to unlocking new demand and detaching from the competitive fray. By focusing on differentiation, companies strive to offer unique value that sets them apart in the marketplace. This isn’t merely about adding features or services that increase value but also involves reimagining the offer to meet unserved or underserved needs in a distinctive way.

At the same time, the pursuit of low cost ensures that the value innovation remains economically feasible and accessible to a broad market segment. This is not about cost-cutting in the traditional sense, where features or quality might be reduced. Instead, it’s about aligning the whole system of a company’s activities to ensure that cost savings are made by eliminating and reducing the factors an industry competes on while raising and creating elements the industry has never offered.

This dual focus helps create a leap in value for the company and its customers. It allows firms to open up new and uncontested market spaces where the cost structure is so advantageous and the offer so differentiated that competitor imitation is difficult. Through this innovative approach, businesses can redefine existing market structures and boundaries, crafting their blue oceans where competition is made irrelevant.

Key Components of the Blue Ocean Strategy


The Blue Ocean Strategy is underpinned by several key components that collectively guide companies in navigating from red to blue oceans. These components are instrumental in facilitating the strategic shift towards blue ocean strategies, creating new market space, and include:

  • Value Innovation: At its core, the Blue Ocean Strategy emphasises value innovation as the foundation for opening up a new market space. This entails delivering exceptional value to customers while driving down costs, making competitors and their offerings irrelevant.
  • The Four Actions Framework: This tool helps businesses systematically consider how to reconstruct market elements to create new value. It involves four key questions: Which factors should be eliminated that the industry takes for granted? Which factors should be reduced well below the industry’s standard? Which factors should be raised well above the industry’s standard? And which factors should be created that the industry has never offered?
  • The Six Paths Framework: This framework encourages companies to look across alternative industries, strategic groups, buyer groups, complementary product and service offerings, the functional-emotional orientation of an industry, and even time to find new ways to add exceptional value.
  • The Strategy Canvas: An analytical tool that captures the current state of play in the known market space. It helps in visualising the industry’s factors against offerings to spot potential spaces for blue oceans and to understand how to position oneself uniquely.
  • The ERRC Grid (Eliminate-Reduce-Raise-Create Grid): This tool helps firms implement the four action framework by aiding them in identifying actions to eliminate, reduce, raise, and create to unlock new value for customers and the company itself.

Combining these components into a coherent strategy enables organisations to break free from the intense competition in red oceans and venture into new, uncontested market spaces, securing sustainable growth and profitability.

Value Innovation


Value innovation is the linchpin of the Blue Ocean Strategy, critical for businesses aiming to transcend the traditional competitive landscape. It isn’t about besting competitors on existing metrics but rather redefining the value for the customer in a way that makes the competition irrelevant. This concept hinges on the simultaneous pursuit of differentiation and low cost, challenging companies to push beyond the existing boundaries of existing market structures to limit competition. By creating products or services that serve unmet needs or introduce new value propositions, companies unlock new demand and give rise to uncontested market spaces – the blue oceans. This strategic manoeuvre attracts a new cohort of customers and establishes a cost structure that is difficult for competitors to match. In essence, value innovation fosters the creation of a unique market space, catalysing growth and ensuring sustainability by focusing on what customers truly value and delivering it in the most efficient way possible.

Value Innovation is the heartbeat of the Blue Ocean Strategy, representing a blend of innovation in value and innovation in company efficiency. It is the strategic process of delivering superior value through unique offerings or services that simultaneously incorporate a cost structure allowing accessible pricing. The significance of Value Innovation cannot be understated; it enables a company to break free from the fierce competition of red oceans and sail into the uncharted waters of blue oceans. Companies can tap into new demand by focusing on new value creation and not just on beating the competition, thereby making the competitive landscape irrelevant. This shift facilitates the discovery of new markets and allows businesses to redefine and reshape existing ones. In essence, Value Innovation is about making the competition irrelevant by offering products or services that create unprecedented value for the customer, thereby securing a lucrative and uncontested market space.

Value innovation has been pivotal in reshaping industries and propelling businesses towards uncontested market leadership. Here are a few compelling examples across different sectors:

  • Healthcare: Telemedicine platforms have revolutionised patient care by enabling remote consultations. This innovation reduces the burden on healthcare facilities and expands access to medical advice, particularly in underserved areas.
  • Automotive: Electric vehicle (EV) manufacturers, led by companies like Tesla, have transformed the automotive industry. Focusing on sustainability, performance, and technology has created a new segment of eco-conscious consumers and spurred traditional carmakers to accelerate their shift towards electric mobility.
  • Retail: The advent of e-commerce giants like Amazon has drastically altered the retail landscape. They’ve redefined convenience shopping by amalgamating an unparalleled product range, swift delivery systems, and customer-centric technologies (like AI-driven recommendations).
  • Entertainment: Streaming services like Netflix have upended the entertainment industry by providing a vast library of content with the convenience of on-demand viewing. This model has not only shifted how content is consumed but also how it’s produced, with these platforms now investing heavily in original content.
  • Financial Services: Fintech companies have reimagined financial services, from mobile payments to peer-to-peer lending platforms. They’ve succeeded by targeting inefficiencies in traditional banking and offering more transparent, user-friendly, and cost-effective solutions.

These examples underscore the power of value innovation in creating blue oceans by marrying unique value propositions with strategic cost efficiencies. By doing so, they open up new markets and render competition irrelevant.

The Four Actions Framework


The Four Actions Framework is a cardinal component of the Blue Ocean Strategy, designed to challenge industry norms and systematically reconstruct market boundaries. This innovatory framework prompts businesses to reevaluate their strategic choices through four lenses: what to eliminate, what to reduce, what to raise, and what to create. The essence of this framework is to disrupt conventional thinking by compelling companies to pursue differentiation and low costs simultaneously. By questioning the status quo and exploring new ways of delivering value to customers, this framework underpins the quest for value innovation. It facilitates a shift away from competing within crowded market spaces, encouraging instead the creation of blue oceans of uncontested market space. Through this prism, businesses can realign their focus toward unlocking new demand and seizing new growth opportunities, effectively making the competition irrelevant.


The “Eliminate” pillar of the Four Actions Framework calls for a radical rethinking of which industry practices and factors should be removed. This step encourages businesses to critically assess the elements that have been taken for granted within their own market space but may no longer hold value for the customer. The objective is to strip away those aspects that contribute to complexity and cost without necessarily adding to the consumer’s appreciation of the product or service. By identifying and eliminating these redundant or overly burdensome factors, companies can streamline their offerings, simplify their value proposition, and differentiate themselves from competitors still encumbered by outdated norms. This process not only aids in reducing costs but also clears the path for focusing on innovative features and services that truly matter to customers, paving the way for creating new market spaces.


The “Reduce” component of the Four Actions Framework challenges businesses to evaluate the level at which industry-specific factors are offered critically. The aim is to ascertain which features or services can be scaled back well below the industry’s standard to avoid meaningfully overserving customers and slashing costs. This scrutinising approach allows companies to identify areas where resources are spent on aspects of the offering that do not significantly contribute to creating unique value for the customer or are taken for granted without delivering a corresponding impact on satisfaction. By judiciously reducing these elements, organisations can enhance their efficiency and cost structure and redirect their focus and investments into areas that truly differentiate their offering in the marketplace. Such strategic reduction is a vital step towards discovering new blue oceans by simplifying products and services, thus realigning them more closely with customers’ core values and needs.


The “Raise” element of the Four Actions Framework is integral to enhancing the value proposition of an offering. It involves elevating aspects of the product or service above the industry’s standard to offer unprecedented value and create distinctive features that set the business apart from its competitors. This step requires a discerning understanding of what customers genuinely value and are willing to pay a premium for. By identifying and amplifying these key factors, companies can inject additional value into their offerings, making them more appealing and superior to their rivals. Notably, “Raise” does not merely imply adding more features for differentiation but focuses on enhancing aspects that deepen the customer’s appreciation and engagement with the product or service. Through this targeted enhancement, businesses can forge a stronger connection with their audience, encouraging loyalty and paving the way to discover untapped market spaces.


The “Create” stage of the Four Actions Framework is where true innovation and distinction come to life. This pivotal phase involves introducing entirely new elements to the market that the industry has never offered. It’s about breaking free from the confines of existing competition and setting a new standard that redefines value for the customer. The creation process is not just about adding more features or services but reinventing an offering in a way that opens up a new dimension of appeal. This could mean developing a new business model, leveraging cutting-edge technology, or tapping into unmet customer needs and desires. By doing so, companies can create a leap in value for themselves and their customers, forging a path to unexplored market territories. The essence of the “Create” step is to innovate to create a blue ocean of opportunity, making all the industries and competition irrelevant and establishing a unique market space. It highlights the importance of not just competing but creating new frontiers of value that captivate the market.

Application and Examples

Applying the Four Actions Framework in practical business scenarios has led to the emergence of exemplary cases of the blue ocean strategy. One notable example is Cirque du Soleil, which successfully applied this framework to reinvent the traditional circus industry. Cirque du Soleil cut significant costs by eliminating animal acts, which were costly and controversial, and reducing the emphasis on star performers and aisle concession sales. They raised artistic, theme-based storytelling and venue quality, creating a sophisticated, theatrical experience. Furthermore, they created a unique blend of opera, ballet, and circus aimed at adult audiences willing to pay premium ticket prices, thus opening up a new uncontested market space that differentiated them from traditional circuses and theatre productions.

Another example can be found in the automotive industry with the introduction of electric vehicles (EVs) by companies like Tesla. Tesla applied the framework by eliminating the traditional dealership model, reducing complexity in car designs, and raising performance and environmental standards. Crucially, they created an ecosystem around their vehicles, including proprietary charging stations and advanced onboard technology, fundamentally altering how people perceive and interact with cars. By focusing on innovation and customer value, these examples demonstrate how the Four Actions Framework can guide businesses towards undiscovered markets, turning competition into irrelevance and fostering a space for growth and innovation.

The Strategy Canvas


The Strategy Canvas is a pivotal tool within the blue ocean strategy framework that visually plots the current state of play in the market according to the critical factors that the industry competes on and invests in. This is a diagnostic instrument and an action framework for building a compelling blue ocean strategy. By mapping out the competition on key industry factors, Strategy Canvas helps businesses understand where the competition is investing, the factors they compete on, and what customers receive from the existing offerings. It allows blue ocean companies to see how to shift their focus from competing within these confines to creating new value innovations. Specifically, by identifying areas ripe for reduction or elimination and spotting opportunities for raising and creating unique factors, businesses can redraw their Strategic Canvas in ways that diverge from the industry norm. Reimagining the industry boundaries lays the groundwork for opening uncharted market space and pioneering a blue ocean of uncontested market territory. The Strategy Canvas facilitates a clear understanding of the current market landscape and empowers businesses to drive their innovation efforts with strategic precision, ultimately crafting offerings that break away from the competition and resonate deeply with customers.

The Strategy Canvas not only acts as a mirror reflecting the industry’s landscape but also as a compass guiding strategic innovation. It enables organisations to chart a course towards differentiation and low cost, the two critical pillars of the blue ocean strategy. By vividly depicting the strategic profile of an industry, it reveals the gaps and opportunities for introducing high value at lower costs. Through this analytical lens, firms can scrutinise the allocation of resources, reevaluate market focus, and question industry norms. The tool urges businesses to transcend traditional competitive strategies, urging them towards paths less travelled where new demand is created and competition is made irrelevant. Essentially, the Strategy Canvas embodies the noncompetitive market space exploration principle, encouraging firms to invent and capture new frontiers of value.

Visualizing competition and strategic focus through the lens of the Strategy Canvas elucidates how organizations can pivot from me-too strategies to groundbreaking innovations. This visual tool encourages a departure from the beaten path of competition, guiding companies towards market areas ripe for disruption. By deeply analyzing competitors’ strategic moves, businesses gain insight into overlooked customer needs and underexploited market segments. This meticulous approach fosters a culture of strategic thinking focused on differentiation and value innovation rather than mere competition on existing parameters. Consequently, firms are better positioned to identify unique value propositions that not only fulfil unmet customer desires but also challenge and ultimately redefine industry standards. This shift towards imaginative strategic planning is essential for discovering a new market space that is uncontested and ripe for profitable growth elsewhere.

Implementation of the Blue Ocean Strategy


Creating Blue Oceans involves a systematic approach companies can adopt to discover and capture their uncontested market spaces. These steps are pivotal for organisations looking to create blue oceans and break free from the red ocean of fierce competition:

  1. Reconstruct Market Boundaries: Investigate the six paths of thinking to break free from the accepted boundaries of competition. Look beyond existing demand and explore the needs and desires of non-customers.
  2. Focus on the Big Picture, Not the Numbers: Develop a strategic vision focusing on the broader landscape rather than getting bogged down in numbers and existing competitive strategies. Use the Strategy Canvas to visualize this new market space.
  3. Reach Beyond Existing Demand: Instead of focusing solely on existing customers, expand your outlook to include potential new customer bases, including those who have never used your products or services.
  4. Get the Strategic Sequence Right: Ensure your offering meets the criteria of buyer utility, strategic pricing, and cost targets, and adopt an effective business model that enables you to reach beyond existing demand profitably.
  5. Overcome Key Organizational Hurdles: Address the common organizational hurdles when implementing a blue ocean strategy. This includes overcoming the cognitive, resource, motivational, and political hurdles within the company to ensure smooth adoption.
  6. Embed the Blue Ocean Strategy in the Corporate Culture: Incorporate the Blue Ocean approach into every level of the organisation, from corporate strategy to daily operations. This fosters a culture of continuous innovation and value creation, steering the company away from competition-based red oceans.

By systematically following these steps, companies can effectively create their own blue ocean of oceans, carving out uncontested market spaces that are ripe for growth.

Challenges and Considerations in Implementation


While the roadmap to creating Blue Oceans is clear, businesses face multifaceted challenges and considerations during its implementation. The first significant challenge is the organisational inertia and resistance to change. Breaking away from the traditional competition-focused strategies requires a paradigm shift in thinking at all levels of the organisation, which can be met with resistance.

Additionally, accurate market insight and detecting non-customer segments demand extensive market research and an outside-the-box approach to strategy formulation. This is not only time-consuming but also requires a significant investment in terms of resources and effort.

Another crucial consideration is the sustainability and defence of the newly created blue ocean. Once a company successfully innovates and captures new demand, it inevitably attracts competition. Therefore, creating barriers to entry and continually innovating to stay ahead becomes paramount.

Furthermore, aligning the blue ocean strategy with the corporate strategy and culture is essential. This alignment challenges the organisation to balance exploring new opportunities and exploiting existing competencies.

In summary, while the blue ocean strategy offers an enticing pathway to uncontested market spaces and significant growth opportunities, the path is fraught with challenges that require strategic foresight, resilience, and adaptability.

Impact and Critiques of the Blue Ocean Strategy


The Blue Ocean Strategy has undeniably significantly impacted how organisations perceive competition and market creation. It has provided a fresh lens through which businesses can identify and exploit new market spaces, creating value innovation and strategic growth. Numerous companies have successfully applied the principles of the Blue Ocean Strategy to unknown market space, unveiling new demand and securing uncontested market territories, which has led to commercial success and a sustainable competitive advantage.

However, the Blue Ocean Strategy is not without its critiques. One of the main criticisms revolves around the practicality of finding and developing blue oceans. Critics argue that in highly saturated industries, the opportunities for uncovering or creating entirely new market spaces are limited and, in some cases, non-existent. There is also the contention that the Red Ocean strategy’s emphasis on differentiation and low cost might lead to trade-offs in quality or sustainability, potentially harming the brand in the long run.

Another critique points to the transient nature of blue oceans. Even as a company successfully creates a blue ocean, it becomes a competitor’s target, which may quickly erode the uncontested space. This critique underscores the challenge in sustaining a blue ocean once established.

Furthermore, implementing a blue ocean strategy involves significant risk and uncertainty. Critics of the approach highlight that it may lead to companies overstretching their resources and capabilities in pursuit of uncertain markets, which can divert focus from their core business and existing competitive advantages.

Despite these critiques, the Blue Ocean Strategy remains a compelling strategic thinking and innovation framework. It challenges companies to look beyond conventional competition and focus on creating new demand and strategic growth opportunities. While the path to creating and sustaining blue oceans is fraught with challenges, the potential rewards make it an attractive strategy for businesses seeking to escape the red ocean of intense competition.

The Future of the Blue Ocean Strategy


The future of the Blue Ocean Strategy lies in its adaptation and evolution amidst rapidly changing market dynamics and technological advancements. As digital transformation continues to reshape industries, the opportunities for creating new market spaces online and through innovative technologies are expanding. One significant area of growth is the integration of data analytics and artificial intelligence (AI) in strategy formulation, enabling businesses to gain deeper insights into unmet customer needs and emerging consumer trends. Furthermore, the rise of sustainability and ethical consumerism presents a fertile ground for companies to explore blue oceans by offering environmentally friendly and socially responsible products and services.

In addition, the sharing economy and platform-based business models offer new avenues for value innovation, allowing companies to leverage underutilised assets and create new forms of value for customers.

However, the future also holds new challenges for the Blue Ocean Strategy. The speed at which information spreads, and markets evolve means that blue oceans may become bloody red oceans much quicker than before, necessitating faster innovation cycles and continuous reinvention from businesses.

Overall, the Blue Ocean Strategy will remain relevant as a tool for strategic thinking and innovation. Its principles, adapted to the new realities of the digital and sustainable economy, will guide businesses in exploring untapped market spaces and creating value innovations that meet consumers’ evolving needs and desires. The key to success will lie in companies’ ability to remain agile, forward-thinking, and committed to pushing the boundaries of traditional markets.



In conclusion, the significance of the Blue Ocean Strategy cannot be overstated. It represents a paradigm shift in how organisations approach strategic planning and market competition. Encouraging businesses to move beyond the crowded and competitive red oceans and venture into uncharted blue oceans offers a framework for innovative growth and sustained competitive advantage. The Blue Ocean strategy book’s focus on value innovation, differentiation, and low-cost challenges conventional thinking, urging companies to create new demand and seize uncontested market spaces.

Despite critiques regarding its practicality, risk, and the transient nature of blue oceans, the strategy’s foundational principles of exploring new horizons, aligning with emerging consumer trends, and leveraging technological advancements remain more relevant than ever. The Blue Ocean Strategy provides a roadmap for companies seeking to escape the fierce competition. It serves as a catalyst for strategic thinking and innovation in the contemporary business landscape, marking its importance for future generations of businesses.

Businesses standing at the precipice of the unknown—faced with the daunting task of innovating or venturing into uncharted markets—should take solace in the history of commercial success is replete with tales of courage, creativity, and transformation. The call to action is clear: to boldly explore new opportunities beyond traditional boundaries, understanding that the essence of innovation lies not in the safety of the familiar but in the brave pursuit of the unknown.

This is not a mere invitation to risk but a challenge to creatively destruct, rebuild, and redefine what is possible. In an era marked by rapid technological change and shifts in consumer values, tomorrow’s success belongs to those who can envision and capture new frontiers today. Businesses must, therefore, remain agile, continually questioning the status quo and leveraging insights to drive value innovation. The future is bright for those who dare to innovate, dream, and lead the charge into new markets, crafting their own blue oceans in the vast, unexplored waters of opportunity.


References and Further Reading

  1. Kim, W. Chan, and Renée Mauborgne. Blue Ocean Strategy: How to Create Uncontested Market Space and Make the Competition Irrelevant. Harvard Business Review Press, 2005.
  2. Kim, W. Chan, and Renée Mauborgne. Blue Ocean Shift: Beyond Competing – Proven Steps to Inspire Confidence and Seize New Growth. Hachette Books, 2017.
  3. Porter, Michael E. Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors. Free Press, 1980.
  4. Christensen, Clayton M. The Innovator’s Dilemma: When New Technologies Cause Great Firms to Fail. Harvard Business Review Press, 1997.
  5. Osterwalder, Alexander, and Yves Pigneur. Business Model Generation: A Handbook for Visionaries, Game Changers, and Challengers. John Wiley & Sons, 2010.
  6. McGrath, Rita Gunther. The End of Competitive Advantage: How to Keep Your Strategy Moving as Fast as Your Business. Harvard Business Review Press, 2013.
  7. Johnson, Mark W., Clayton M. Christensen, and Henning Kagermann. “Reinventing Your Business Model.” Harvard Business Review, December 2008.
  8. TED Talks. Various speakers on topics related to innovation, strategy, and competitive advantage.
  9. The Blue Ocean Strategy official website and blog for the latest insights, case studies, and methodologies.

These resources provide a thorough understanding of the Blue Ocean Strategy, from its foundational principles to its application in today’s dynamic business environment. Readers are encouraged to explore these texts and platforms to deepen their knowledge and engage with practical tools for innovation and strategic growth.

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Reagan Pannell

Reagan Pannell

Reagan Pannell is a highly accomplished professional with 15 years of experience in building lean management programs for corporate companies. With his expertise in strategy execution, he has established himself as a trusted advisor for numerous organisations seeking to improve their operational efficiency.

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